作者：丹尼斯?哈... 来源: 发布时间：2014-09-11
Dr. Dennis Harkins, Orange Coast College President（加州橘海岸学院校长 丹尼斯•哈肯斯博士）
• I would like to thank you for the opportunity to talk to you about The Challenges and Opportunities of an Evolving Workplace for Vocational Educators and Industry.
• The United States is placing increasing importance on Vocational Education as a means to develop manufacturing capacity, take advantage of innovation, and to lead students to a career of employability.
• Community Colleges are seen as the sector of higher education that is positioned for training and retraining of an educated workforce.
• This presentation is structured in two major areas.
• The first, second, third, and forth subheadings review the American higher education at the national level to the institutional perspective at Orange Coast College.
• The firth, sixth, seventh, and eighth subsections discuss the development of vocational programs along with current and future connections between industry and higher education institutions.
• The USA higher education structure at the national level focuses on broad policies through the Department of Education and a network of quality assurance agencies that accredit programs and institutions.
• At the state level there are government agencies that define the educational structure within the state and provide support and coordination between the various sectors. In the case of elementary and secondary school systems and Community Colleges there are local governing boards to represent the interest of the local communities. These board may be appointed by the Governor or elected by the local community.
• Accreditation is a voluntary process by institutions of higher education although it is necessary to participate in national funding schemes.
• The higher education focus in America is based on a solid foundation of the liberal arts. The liberal arts being comprised on general knowledge necessary for a democratic society and are seen as a requisite knowledge to advanced and focused study . Some institutions of higher education have a technology emphasis in the later years of the programs.
• Students can transfer from one institution to another ands from one sector of higher education to another with some level of coordination and comparability of study.
• All students have an opportunity to participate in higher education.
• The state and national Government along with private and public enterprises provide assistance to student in the way of need based and merit grants which are not repaid and loans.
• Higher Education in America starts after high school where students are prepared to go to work and attend a college or university in the state system.
• Community Colleges are the most accessible, least expensive, and largest sector of higher education. They are the largest provider of workforce training. With more than 1,200 community colleges they are located near to where students live and work. Community colleges offer certificates, along with Associate and Baccalaureate Degrees.
• Comprehensive Colleges and Universities offer bachelor, masters, and select doctorate degrees.
• Research universities are seen as developing new technology and the source for scientific innovation. They offer bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees.
• There are a wide range of institutional types that students may attend. They are separated by their source of financial support.
• Public or government schools receive their funding from the state along with fees paid by students.
• Private Not-For-Profit institutions are often affiliated with a religious or philanthropic venture. Private colleges often have an endowment and charge fees to students.
• For-Profit institutions derive all their fees from students.
• Increasingly public and private institutions are raising fees and looking for a business or social enterprise model to create revenue from services and leasing intellectual property.
• Students are seeing the cost of education rise and are increasingly going into debt to afford higher education. Student loans in the United States are approaching one trillion dollars.
• The California Master Plan was created in 1960 and has provided the framework for higher education in California for fifty-four years.
• The intent of the master plan was to balance the competing demands across the state for higher education and to guarantee educational access to all citizens.
• It created the California Community College System, the California State University System, and the University of California System.
The plan has served the state well and created one of the best systems of higher education in the world
• The California Master Plan created a system based on the graduation rank of students from high school and now is adjusted for SAT and other test scores.
• The top one-eighth of graduating classes are offered acceptance to of the one campuses of the University of California System.
• The top one-third of graduating classes are offered acceptance to one of the campuses of the California State University System.
• Community Colleges are open access to all students who may benefit from the instruction.
• There are 2.4 Million students enrolled in classes ranging from basic adult education, workforce training, and associate degrees in academic disciplines and career technical education.
• There is a California Community College System under the leadership of a state Chancellor and governed by an appointed Board of Governors.
• There are 72 regional Community College Districts each with an elected Board of Trustees.
• There are 112 Community Colleges each independently accredited by the Association Community of College and Junior Colleges.
• California will start offering the Bachelors Degree in the near future with a pilot starting in 2016.
• There is a parallel structure at the state and local levels with both governance bodies and an administrative structure.
• In addition, the California Legislature has legislated two additional entities: the California Academic Senate and the Associated Students of California as part of the governance structures.
• The Academic Senate and the faculty of the institution are given primary responsibility for Curriculum along with other academic and professional matters.
• The Associated Students are charged with promoting student government and contributing to student life.
• The local college administration is charged with the operation of the college and in orchestrating the participatory governance of constituents.
• The Community College System has prioritized the course offerings and focused on instruction in three areas: Transfer and Degree Programs, Career and Technical Education, and Basic Skills.
• Two-year associate degrees offer paths to employment and articulate with 4-year bachelor programs.
• Career and Technical Education courses and programs supply students for the workforce in a range of programs from welding, computer robotics, and professional mariner professions.
• Basic Skills classes support the mission of access and allow open admission to students into career or academic programs by providing instruction in Math, English, Reading, and English as a Second Language to speakers of other languages.
• The primary mission of the community colleges is to offer associate degrees locally and to connect their programs with other higher educational institutions.
• Articulation for courses and program graduates allow students to take courses at other institutions and to progress from one level, the associate degree, to the next, the baccalaureate.
• Students may stop-out after they have met their educational goals and return to advance their training as needed throughout their careers.
• Workplace training is done by the community colleges through individual courses, certificates, and career work focused associate degrees.
• Each career program maintains an advisory board of professionals to advise the faculty and administration on curriculum, equipment, facilities, and current industry practices.
• Students gain experience in the work place through externships and internships.
• While each college is to meet local workplace needs, the state Chancellor’s Office coordinates research and supports program coordination and development.
• The state has grouped career areas into fifteen industry pathways and has state, and regional sector navigators to facilitate the collaboration between colleges.
• The collaboration is supported by grants that are initiated by the national or state government.
• This slide and the next list the typology of industries that operate in the California Community College System.
• Colleges are encouraged to have a primary focus on four of the sectors and can have a secondary focus on an additional four sectors.
• The fifteen industry sectors are;
1. Arts, Media and Entertainment
2. Building Trades and Construction
3. Hospitality, Tourism and Recreation
4. Agriculture and Natural Resources
5. Energy and Utilities
6. Fashion and Interior Design
7. Engineering and Design
8. Health Science and Medical Technology
The remaining California Community Industry Sectors are:
9. Public Services
10. Finance and Business
11. Information Technology
12. Manufacturing and Product Development
13. Marketing, Sales and Service
15. Education and Family Services
• In order for the community colleges to maintain their primary mission of open access, they offer basic skills in English as a second language, English, Math, and Reading.
• Colleges also offer courses that introduce students to higher education and how to be a successful students.
• Tutoring Centers provide a place where students may work on computer directed learning, work with tutors, work/study with peer tutors,and with other forms of supplemental learning programs.
• Students with special physical or learning disabilities can get assistance by professionals trained in special accommodations.
• Orange Coast College gets it name from its location in Orange County California, or the OC, and is 45 miles south-east of Los Angeles .
• It is one of three colleges in the Coast Community College District. The other two colleges are Coastline Community College and Golden West College
• With 25,000 students Orange Coast College offers 130 academic and career programs.
• The college offers traditional class room based instruction, hybrid courses, and on-line courses.
• The college has a diverse student population with more than half of the students being Asian and Hispanic origin.
• Orange Coast College has the largest number of students who graduate or transfer to the University of California and the California State University in Orange County and one of the top in the State.
• Community Colleges vary greatly across the United States. Most have an enrollment under 5,000 students.
• Orange Coast College has a full range of athletics, student life activities, student leadership programs, and service learning comparable to many residential institutions.
• The college has unique programs that serve the community including a recycling center and a child development center.
• Orange Coast College has the only 2-year crew team in the United States and competes with top universities throughout the nation. The OCC men’s crew team and coach went to China in the 1970’s to help coach the first Chinese Olympic team.
• The Orange Coast College vocational programs include Business, Information Computer Systems, Allied Health Occupations, Hospitality, Consumer Sciences, Kinesiology, Horticulture, Social Services, Technology, and Visual and Performing Arts.
• Orange Coast College has significant depth to the vocational education programs and has some very highly specialized programs:
• Medical Sonography, Neurodiagnostic Technology, Polysomnography,
• Aviation, Flight Operations, & Professional Mariner
• Advance Manufacturing, and Robotics
• Film/Video, Illustration, Photography, Web Development, & Graphic Design,
• Dance, Music, & Theatre Arts
• Pre-Law, Pre-Medicine
• STEM2 Programs are the foundation for innovation and central to creating a highly trained workforce. STEM2 programs focus on problem based learning.
• Outreach to the community is an important of engaging the primary and secondary students in the community. Outreach events include summer bridge programs that inform students of career opportunities and include the OCC Math Meet, OCC Science Night where more than 5,000 elementary students and their families vist the college. Central to this effort is the construction of a new 150 state of the art planetarium that will be used for the college as well as the local school system for youth programs.
• Athletics add to the student life on the campus, bring in a more diverse student population, and are successful in positioning students to qualify for competitive scholarships and entry to top universities.
• Athletes come from out of state and from areas outside the immediate proximity of the college.
• Student life varies greatly across the spectrum of community colleges across the country.
• Orange Coast Colleges has more student clubs than we have time to name.
• Student Government’s Interclub Council provides funding and oversight for student clubs cooperatively with faculty advisors.
• Student Government and student clubs provide activities for students to become involved in areas of interest while providing them an learning experience of becoming a club leader, establishing and maintaining a governance process, along with managing a budget.
• Fundraising events for the community bring students together and engaged in larger social issues such as fund raising for tsunami and earthquake victims.
• Two thirds of the students at Orange Coast College are under 25 years of age.
• Many adults return to college to advance their skills and to pursue new interests often embracing the latest technologies.
• There is a balance of men and women who study at the college although nationally the trend is for women to outnumber men significantly.
• The demographics of most community colleges represent the communities they serve and are more diverse than most four year colleges and universities.
• The principle of social equity at community colleges strives to allow access to all groups of people regardless of their age, ethnic background, or family income level.
• Orange Coast College has a more diverse student population than its immediate surrounding community and students travel across traditional college service areas to attend. Nearly 40 percent of students that attend the college are from out of district.
• International students make up 4 percent of the students.
• They come from 60 different countries.
• With most from the Pacific Rim.
• Students come from all over the world.
• In addition to students on visas there are a large number of international permanent visa holders and second generation children of immigrants and refugees whose families have settled in Orange County.
• Community Colleges provide training for the workplace and have sophisticated curricula and facilities.
• The curriculum and program of study are based on the demands of the employers who participate in advisory committees and extern or internships.
• The national and state government support the direction of vocational programs through providing research, and offering grants to institutions and target groups of students.
• The faculty at each college are responsible for designing the curriculum, program requirements, and entrance standards.
• The college’s role is to interact broadly with state, regional, and state industry representatives along with those who have coordinating roles within the community college system.
• Instruction should be at many levels and when added together be able to create certificates and degrees that meet industry certifications and state licensing requirements.
• The college program Career Technical Education Advisory Boards are essential links with industry throughout the life cycle of career programs.
• Internships and externships provide real world experience for students and provide valuable feedback opportunities for colleges to continually improve the quality of
• Institutions of Higher Education as uniquely positioned to bring together the academic and industry communities.
• This can be done individually, but there is an imperative to come together and like programs and industry on an international basis and scale.
• The key is to develop long rang goals that are flexible and will sustain a meaning partnership where all parties benefit on an on-going basis.
• Institutions must internationalize their communities and pursue the highest level of education, training, and support highly developed industries.
• The workplace is becoming more sophisticated. Workers are being asked to perform advance tasks that require highly specialized training that must be continuously updated. Community Colleges and Industry must work together to maintain and develop the talent pool.
• Industry must take a larger role in sharing their expertise in keeping teachers up-to-date with current industry standards and trends.
• The workplace is on a global stage and both community colleges and industry must prepare high quality workers with mobility of ideas, technology, and continuous learning.工作场所是在全球舞台，社区大学和行业都必须准备具有活性思维，技术和持续学习的高品质员工。
• Higher demands will require greater levels of certification and the baccalaureate in many industries.
• I want to thank you for your attention and hope that you will benefit from some of my comments.
• I also want to thank the Dalian Huamei International Economic and Cultural Exchange Center and the Community College Baccalaureate Association.